Edisi ke sepuluh program Belajar di Rumah. Kali ini, soal dan pembahasan contoh soal UTBK Bahasa Inggris. Program belajar di rumah merupakan kerja sama RCTV, Radar Cirebon Koran, Radar Cirebon Online dan Neutron Yogyakarta Cabang Cirebon.
Vitamin D deficiency is traditionally associated with bone and muscle weakness, but in recent years a number of studies have shown that low levels of the vitamin may predispose the body to high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and chronic blood vessel inflammation (associated with hardening of the arteries). It also alters hormone levels to increase insulin resistance, which raises the risk of diabetes.
In a review article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, researchers surveyed recent studies on the link between vitamin D deficiency and heart disease to come up with practical advice on screening and treatment. They concluded that vitamin D deficiency is much more common than previously thought, affecting up to half of adults and apparently healthy children in the U.S. Researchers say higher rates of vitamin D deficiency may be due in part to people spending more time indoors and efforts to minimize sun exposure through the use of sunscreens. Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 blocks approximately 99% of vitamin D synthesis by the skin.
“We are outside less than we used be, and older adults and people who are overweight or obese are less efficient at making vitamin D in response to sunlight,” says O’Keefe. “A little bit of sunshine is a good thing, but the use of sunscreen to guard against skin cancer is important if you plan to be outside for more than 15 to 30 minutes of intense sunlight exposure.”
(soal prediksi UTBK)
1. The main idea of this passage is that …
A. vitamin D deficiency in one’s body is the main cause of diseases.
B. Traditional vitamin D deficiency causes problems in bones and muscles.
C. Research findings show vitamin D deficiency may lead to health problems.
D. The best source of vitamin D to improve one’s health comes form sunshine.
E. The U.S. researchers say-that sunscreen can keep everyone from skin diseases.
Informasi tersebut dapat ditemukan dalam kutipan berikut:..” , but in recent years a number of studies have shown that low levels of the vitamin may predispose the body to high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and chronic blood vessel inflammation (associated with hardening of the arteries). It also alters hormone levels to increase insulin resistance, which raises the risk of diabetes.”
2. Skin cancer is believed to be the effect of ….
A. chronic vitamin D deficiency.
B. excessive exposure to sunlight.
C. doing more indoor activities.
D. low levels of vitamin consumption.
E. lack of sun protection factor.
Informasi trsebut dapat ditemukan dalam kutipan berikut:..” A little bit of sunshine is a good thing, but the use of sunscreen to guard against skin cancer is important if you plan to be outside for more than 15 to 30 minutes of intense sunlight exposure.”
3. Paragraph preceding the text will probably discuss about…..
A. types of vitamins which are good for our health
B. the danger of insufficiency of vitamin D in humn body
C. vitamin D and its benefits to our health
D. the danger of vitamin deficiency to our health
E. the relation between skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency
Preceding paragaph paragraf sebelum teks ) berkaitan erat dengan paragraf pertama kalimat pertama, dan memuat informasi yang lebih general (umum).
Karena paragraf pertama kalimat pertama memuat informasi tentang efek kekurangan vitamin D pada kesehatan, maka paragraf sebelumnya berisi info yang lebih umum namun tetap berkaitan dengannya. Sehingga opsi yang paling tepat adalah ..” vitamin D and its benefits to our health”..( vitamin D dan manfatnya pada kesehatan).
4. For whom the passage is intended?
A. doctors and medical staff
B. the students of medical faculty
C. people in general
D. the minister of health
Teks diatas adalah teks yang berisi informasi umum tentang efek kekurangan vitamin D pada kesehatan, sehingga teks tersebut ditujukan kepada para pembaca secara luas/umum ( people in general).
The use of narcotics and illegal drugs does not merely have an impact on mental and behavioral disorders. Even worse, drugs damage the heart and can lead to death. The effects of drugs on the heart vary, ranging from mild, severe, to death.
There are three types of drugs that cause death in the heart muscle: cocaine, amphetamines, and ecstasy. These three types of drug substances have a similar effect on the heart. They cause an increase in the catecholamine hormone which makes the heart work harder. The effect of consuming it is a sudden increase in blood pressure. As a result, the heart muscles’ demand for oxygen increases. The long-term effect of using this type of drug can damage (tie walls of the blood vessels, both the arteries and coronary arteries. This condition causes a tear in the blood vessel wall. In addition, damage to the heart muscle can interfere with the heart’s pumping function and cause heart rhythm disturbances. The heart rates can become very fast and a cardiac arrest can happen.
Other groups of drugs that damage the heart are LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) and psilocybin, which causes hallucinations. The effect of these substances on the heart is an increase in the heart rate and blood pressure though it is not as high as that caused by cocaine or amphetamines. A rare but quite serious effect is a heart rhythm disorder in the form of tachyarrhythmia where the heart rate increases very rapidly. The next prohibited substance is morphine and its derivatives.
Besides LSD, there is morphine which is a strong antidote to pain, but excessive use of this substance will lead to addiction. The higher the dose is consumed, the greater is the effect in reducing the heart’s performance. The fatal effects comprise, among others, shocks and cardiac arrest. Another disorder found in morphine users is pulmonary edema, which is submerged lungs that can be fatal. The last group is marijuana. In high doses, marijuana causes a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, which can lead to fatality. The most severe condition due to marijuana are cardiac arrest and death.
(soal asli UTBK 2019)
5. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. The use of narcotics an illegal drugs and its beneficial effect on its users
B. Type of narcotics n illegal drugs
C. The danger of using drugs towards human body
D. The negative impacts of using narcotics an illegal drugs towards human heart
E. Types of drugs and their effects on our health
Topic teks tersebut bisa ditemukan di paragaf pertama seperti dalam kutipn berikut:..” The use of narcotics and illegal drugs does not merely have an impact on mental and behavioral disorders. Even worse, drugs damage the heart and can lead to death”,…
6. Based on the passage, the effect of using large amounts of morphine is….
A. hallucinations among the users
B. dramatic increase in heart rates
C. weakening of the hearts performance
D. trouble with the heart’s pumping function
E. decrease in blood pressure and heart rates
Informasi tersebut bisa ditemukn dari kutipan di paragraf 4 berikut:…” Besides LSD, there is morphine which is a strong antidote to pain, but excessive use of this substance will lead to addiction. The higher the dose is consumed, the greater is the effect in reducing the heart’s performance”.. reducing the heart’s performance = weakening of the hearts performance
7. Which conclusion is the most appropriate based on the passage?
A. The higher the dose of the drug consumed, the greater the impact on the heart’s health.
B. Taking small amounts of drugs under prescription is allowed for medical reasons only.
C. The less drug is consumed, the healthier the condition of one’s heart.
D. Illegal drugs of the LSD type have a fatal effect on the heart’s health.
E. Not consuming drugs can maintain heart’s optimum health.
A. Seluruh paragraf dalam teks diatas menjelaskan tentang efek negatif mengkonsumsi narkotika terhadap kesehatan jantung. Sehingga bisa disimpulkan bahwa:..” Not consuming drugs can maintain heart’s optimum health”..tidak mengkonsumsi zat zat terebut akan bis menjaga kondisi optimal dari kinerja jantung kita.
8. What is the author’ main reason in writing the pssge?
A. People’s miconceptions on the use and the danger of illegal drugs towards heart
B. The limited information of the danger of illegal drugs towards our heart
C. People’s misunderstanding about the danger of illegal drugs towards our heart
D. The lack of information about the types and the use of illegal drugs
E. The controversy on the use of narcotics and illegal drugs
Teks diatas secara detail menjelaskan tentang “The negative impacts of using narcotics an illegal drugs towards human heart”, sehingga motivasi utama penulis adalah (menyediakan informasi) karena kurangnya /terbatasnya infomasi tentang bahaya narkoba pada kesehatan jantung= The limited information of the danger of illegal drugs towards our heart.
Smartphones, tablets and e-readers should have an automatic “bedtime mode” that stops them disrupting people’s sleep, says a leading doctor. Professor Paul Gringras argued the setting should filter out the blue light that delays the body clock and keeps people awake later into the evening. The doctor, from Evelina Children’s Hospital in London, said every new mode 5 l was “bluer and brighter”. He said manufacturers needed to show more “responsibility”.
As it gets darker in the evening, the body starts to produce the sleep hormone melatonin – which helps people nod off. Certain wavelengths of light, those at the blue-green end of the spectrum, can disrupt the system.
Professor Gringras was part of a study, published in Frontiers in Public Health, analysing the light emitted by devices. It concluded there was a clear trend for new devices to be bigger, brighter, have higher levels of contrast and 10 emit more blue light. The professor of children’s sleep medicine told the BBC News website: “That is great for use in the day, but awful for use at night.
“There is converging data to say if you are in front of one of these devices at night-time it could prevent you falling asleep by an extra hour. “He said some sleep-aware apps had already been designed to reduce blue-green light emissions. And that a 15 bedtime mode could automatically filter out the blue as software such as flux already does. He said there needed to be “more responsibility from 15 manufacturers” and the “key is to automate it” Professor Gringras added: “It is not good enough to say do less and accept this is the world we live in, they are fun devices but we do need some protection on what they do at night-time.” (SBMPTN asli 2016)
9. The passage mainly discusses a topic on
A. sleep disorder and its cure
B. problems with new electronic gadgets
C. electronic gadgets that help people fall asleep
D. blue-green light found in electronic devices
E. new technology that can help reduce sleep disruption
Informasi tersebut dapat ditemukan dan disimpulkan dari kutipan berikut:..” Smartphones, tablets and e-readers should have an automatic “bedtime mode” that stops them disrupting people’s sleep, says a leading doctor.”
10. The word emitted in line 8 in the passage means ….
Emitted bermakna mengeluarkan, menghasilkan, maka opsi yang paling sesuai adalah produced.
11 Who are responsible for the automation of the blue-green light that may be caused by electronic devices, according to professor Gringras?
Informasi tersebut dapat ditemukan dan disimpulkan dari kutipan berikut:..” . He said there needed to be “more responsibility from 15 manufacturers” and the “key is to automate it”.
As well as getting more sleep, those who go to bed early and wake up early will probably also have a better quality of sleep. The reason for this is that it means your sleep/wake cycle will be closer to the rising and setting of the sun. This will then mean that your ‘internal pacemaker’ (your natural body clock) is closer to the ‘external zeitgebers’ (the external cues that indicate what time it is). When the sun is out, our body detects this and produces less melatonin so that your sleep will not be as deep. In short then, the most restorative sleep is that which happens when it is darkest, which is usually from around 10-11pm through to 5-6am.
Furthermore, if you often wake up late, you are constantly rushing in the morning, then you will be getting your day off to about the worst start possible. This also means you are unlikely to get a proper breakfast, and probably going to forget something, which definitely means you are going to feel very stressed out and panicked. How about a huge shot of stress hormones to get you started? It is not a good idea for your back to rush first thing in the morning either – seeing as it will be softer and more easily injured when you first spring out of bed.
On the other hand, imagine being able to get up one or two hours before you need to leave. That way you could make yourself a great breakfast, take a long hot shower, do some stretching or meditation and maybe watch the news while you iron. You will find that as a result, you turn up to work looking much belter, feeling much better and performing much better.
Waking up early can also be highly beneficial on the weekends as it means you get to be up during the quieter times of day when no people around. As a result, you will have a few quiet hours to watch your favourite show, to read the paper or a novel, or to work on a side-business.
(Adapted from; http://www.healtguidance.org/entry/17483/1/The-Benefits-of-Being-an-Early-Riser..html)
(SBMPTN asli 2017)
12. The paragraph preceding the passage most likely discusses ….
A. sleep quality of those who go to bed early and wake up early
B. the importance of going to bed early and waking up early
C. one advantage of going to bed early and waking up early
D. the reasons of going to bed early and waking up early
E. how to increase quality of sleep by waking up early
Paragraf sebelumnya membahas apa yang disampaikan di awal teks tersebut, yaitu pentingnya tidur dan bangun lebih awal.
13. What is the author’s attitude toward the topic of the passage?
Teks diatas adalah analiytical exposition yang menunjukkan perhatian/kepedulian (concern) penulis akan pentingnya tidur dan bangun lebih awal.
14. Based on the passage, the earlier people get up in the morning, the ….
A. more they need to work
B. better start they have for the day
C. better income they get from side-business
D. longer time they need to prepare themselves
E. longer time they need to make breakfast and iron their clothes
Informasi tersebut bisa ditemukan dari paragraf dua.. “Furthermore, if you often wake up late, you are constantly rushing in the morning, then you will be getting your day off to about the worst start possible”..kondisi sebaliknya, memulai hari dengan lebih baik(better start they have for the day) akan didapat jika orang-orang bangun lebih pagi.
15. What is the best summary of the passage?
A. It is important for people to have a positive morning to probably have good time during the day, This can be made possible by going to bed early, and waking up early. On weekends, positive morning allows people to do things they cannot do during work days.
B. People who go to bed early and get up early can enjoy some benefits. Their cycle is similar to the sun’s time, allowing them to have the most restorative sleep. On weekends they can have more time to do things they cannot do during weekdays.
C. Early risers will probably have positive start in the morning. They have more time to enjoy breakfast and prepare themselves for the day. On the other hand, getting up late will probably lead to morning rush. This may influence people’s performance during the day negatively.
D. Going to bed early and waking up early result in some positive consequences: leading to a better quality of sleep and having positive morning. One can have good breakfast and is well prepared for activities during the day. On weekends, getting up early allow people more quiet time to do things they cannot do during weekdays.
E. Having the habit of going to bed early and waking up early, people can enjoy several benefits: having better quality of sleep because their cycle is similar to the sun’s time and having good breakfast. Their weekends will be better than their weekdays
Summary memuat rangkuman dari topic, agumen dan kesimpulan atau ending dari teks diatas.